Seven green biodegradable plastics, how many do you know?

  • 2022-08-31
With the continuous improvement of people's environmental awareness, degradable plastics step by step into people's vision.
 Chinese pay attention to the return of fallen leaves to the root, we do plastic people also hope that it can "return to the root", after completing its mission, return to nature, and become one with nature. Thus, biodegradable plastics came into being. Today, we'll look at seven of the most representative biodegradable plastics.

I. Polylactic acid PLA

Polylactic acid (PLA) is a novel biodegradable material made from starch feedstock proposed from renewable plant resources such as maize. With good biodegradability, it can be completely degraded by microorganisms in nature after use, and eventually generate carbon dioxide and water, which does not pollute the environment, which is very beneficial to the protection of the environment, and is recognized as environmentally friendly material. It is understood that PLA dosage accounted for 45.1% of biodegradable plastics, is worthy of the main force.

The degradation of polylactic acid is divided into two stages: 1) the first is pure chemical hydrolysis to lactic acid monomer; 2) Lactic acid monomers are degraded into carbon dioxide and water by microorganisms. Food cups made of polylactic acid can be completely degraded in just 60 days, truly achieving both ecological and economic effects.

PLA is mainly used in food packaging and 3D printing, which are of most concern to everyone. The largest manufacturer of the PLA is NatureWorks of the United States, followed by China's Sea Life.

2, poly (3-hydroxyalkanoate) PHA

PHA is an aliphatic copolyester of different structures synthesized by microorganisms through fermentation of various carbon sources. The most common are poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), poly (hydroxyvalerate) (PHV) and copolymer of PHB and PHV (PHBV).

Main uses: disposable tableware, non-woven fabrics, packaging materials, agricultural coated film, toys, coating, glue, fiber and other degradable products.

Domestic PHA production enterprises include Tianjin Guoyun Biological Materials Co., LTD., Wuhan Huali Technology Co., LTD., Zhejiang Huafa Ecological Technology Co., LTD., Zhejiang Tianhe Ecological Technology Co., LTD., Fujian Best Biological Materials Co., LTD., Zhaoqing Huafang Degradable Plastics Co., LTD.

3. Polyε-caprolactone PCL

Polyε-caprolactone (PCL) is a low melting point polymer obtained by ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone, and its melting point is only 62℃. Biodegradability of PCL has been studied since 1976. PCL can be completely decomposed by microorganisms in both anaerobic and aerobic environments.

Compared with PLA, PCL has better hydrophobicity, but the degradation rate is slower. At the same time, the synthesis process is simple and the cost is low. PCL has excellent processing performance and can be used to make films and other products by ordinary plastic processing equipment.

4, polyester -PBS/PBSA

With aliphatic succinic acid and butanediol as the main raw materials, PBS can not only meet the demand through petrochemical products, but also through the biological fermentation of starch, cellulose, glucose and other natural renewable crop products, so as to realize the green cycle production from nature and return to nature. Moreover, the raw materials produced by biological fermentation process can also greatly reduce the cost of raw materials, so as to further reduce the cost of PBS.

Compared with similar products, polyester biodegradable plastic has the advantages of:

1) Good heat resistance. This led to its promotion in the food and beverage sector;

2) The processing conditions are not high;

3) Easy to preserve and hydrolysis resistant.

Polybutanediol succinate (PBS) is widely used in packaging, tableware, cosmetic bottles and drug bottles, disposable medical supplies, agricultural film, pesticide and fertilizer slow-release materials, biomedical polymer materials and other fields.

5. Aliphatic aromatic copolyesters

The aliphatic aromatic random copolyesters (Ecoflex) manufactured by BASF of Germany are composed of adipic acid, terephthalic acid and 1, 4-butanediol. The current production capacity is 140,000 tons/year. At the same time, biodegradable plastic products mainly made of polyester and starch were developed.

6. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)

Water soluble PVA film is a new plastic product in the world. It makes use of the film formation, water and biological degradation characteristics of PVA, which can be completely degraded into CO2 and H2O. It is a real green, high-tech and environmentally friendly packaging material.

In Europe, America and Japan, water-soluble PVA film has been widely used in the packaging of various products. In China, the development of water-soluble PVA film is still in the initial stage. Industrial research and development has been carried out in the past five years, mainly applied in embroidery and water transfer printing (color printing of glass, ceramics, electrical shell, etc.). The annual usage of PVA in this respect is about 10000T.

7, carbon dioxide copolymer

A new synthetic material under study, carbon dioxide as monomer raw material under the action of bimetallic coordinated PBM type catalyst, is activated to a higher degree, copolymerization reaction with epoxide, the formation of aliphatic polycarbonate (PPC), after processing, carbon dioxide resin material.

Abroad, the first countries to study carbon dioxide copolymer are mainly Japan and the United States, but there has been no industrial production. Using THE TECHNOLOGY OF CHANGCHUN INSTITUTE OF APPLIED CHEMISTRY, Inner Mongolia MENGXI GROUP CO., Ltd. has built the equipment with an ANNUAL output OF 3000 tons of carbon dioxide/EPOXY copolymer resin, and the products are mainly used in packaging and medical materials.

In addition, chitin, polyamide, polyaspartic acid, glycan, cellulose and so on are in the development.

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